Strategies reducing risk of surgical-site infection following pediatric spinal deformity surgery
Hiroko Matsumoto 1 2, Lisa Bonsignore-Opp 3, Shay I Warren 4, Bradley T Hammoor 3, Michael J Troy 5, Kody K Barrett 6, Brendan M Striano 5, Benjamin D Roye 3, Lawrence G Lenke 3, David L Skaggs 7, Michael P Glotzbecker 8, John M Flynn 9, David P Roye 3, Michael G Vitale 3
PMID: 36138336 DOI: 10.1007/s43390-022-00559-9
Background: Identifying beneficial preventive strategies for surgical-site infection (SSI) in individual patients with different clinical and surgical characteristics is challenging. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between preventive strategies and patient risk of SSI taking into consideration baseline risks and estimating the reduction of SSI probability in individual patients attributed to these strategies.
Methods: Pediatric patients who underwent primary, revision, or final fusion for their spinal deformity at 7 institutions between 2004 and 2018 were included. Preventive strategies included the use of topical vancomycin, bone graft, povidone-iodine (PI) irrigations, multilayered closure, impermeable dressing, enrollment in quality improvement (QI) programs, and adherence to antibiotic prophylaxis. The CDC definition of SSI as occurring within 90 days postoperatively was used. Multiple regression modeling was performed following multiple imputation and multicollinearity testing to investigate the effect of preventive strategies on SSI in individual patients adjusted for patient and surgical characteristics.
Results: Univariable regressions demonstrated that enrollment in QI programs and PI irrigation were significantly associated, and topical vancomycin, multilayered closure, and correct intraoperative dosing of antibiotics trended toward association with reduction of SSI. In the final prediction model using multiple regression, enrollment in QI programs remained significant and PI irrigation had an effect in decreasing risks of SSI by average of 49% and 18%, respectively, at the individual patient level.
Conclusion: Considering baseline patient characteristics and predetermined surgical and hospital factors, enrollment in QI programs and PI irrigation reduce the risk of SSI in individual patients. Multidisciplinary efforts should be made to implement these practices to increase patient safety.
Level of evidence: Prognostic level III study.
Keywords: Precision prevention; Quality improvement; Risk calculator; Surgical-site infection.
© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Scoliosis Research Society.